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最后发布版本： 1.70.0 (2023-06-02 02:52:53)
The Rust Programming Language
This is the main source code repository for Rust. It contains the compiler, standard library, and documentation.
Note: this README is for users rather than contributors. If you wish to contribute to the compiler, you should read CONTRIBUTING.md instead.
Read "Installation" from The Book.
Installing from Source
The Rust build system uses a Python script called
x.py to build the compiler,
which manages the bootstrapping process. It lives at the root of the project.
It also uses a file named
config.toml to determine various configuration settings for the build.
You can see a full list of options in
x.py command can be run directly on most Unix systems in the following
./x.py <subcommand> [flags]
This is how the documentation and examples assume you are running
Some alternative ways are:
# On a Unix shell if you don't have the necessary `python3` command ./x <subcommand> [flags] # On the Windows Command Prompt (if .py files are configured to run Python) x.py <subcommand> [flags] # You can also run Python yourself, e.g.: python x.py <subcommand> [flags]
More information about
x.py can be found by running it with the
or reading the rustc dev guide.
Make sure you have installed the dependencies:
python3 or 2.7
- A C compiler (when building for the host,
ccis enough; cross-compiling may need additional compilers)
curl(not needed on Windows)
pkg-configif you are compiling on Linux and targeting Linux
libiconv(already included with glibc on Debian-based distros)
To build Cargo, you'll also need OpenSSL (
most Unix distros).
If building LLVM from source, you'll need additional tools:
clang++, or MSVC with versions listed on LLVM's documentation
ninja, or GNU
make3.81 or later (Ninja is recommended, especially on Windows)
cmake3.13.4 or later
libstdc++-staticmay be required on some Linux distributions such as Fedora and Ubuntu
On tier 1 or tier 2 with host tools platforms, you can also choose to download
LLVM by setting
llvm.download-ci-llvm = true.
Otherwise, you'll need LLVM installed and
llvm-config in your path.
See the rustc-dev-guide for more info.
Building on a Unix-like system
Clone the source with
git clone https://github.com/rust-lang/rust.git cd rust
Configure the build settings:
If you plan to use
x.py installto create an installation, it is recommended that you set the
prefixvalue in the
[install]section to a directory:
./configure --set install.prefix=<path>
Build and install:
./x.py build && ./x.py install
./x.py installwill place several programs into
rustc, the Rust compiler, and
rustdoc, the API-documentation tool. By default, it will also include Cargo, Rust's package manager. You can disable this behavior by passing
Configure and Make
This project provides a configure script and makefile (the latter of which just invokes
./configure is the recommended way to programatically generate a
make is not
recommended (we suggest using
x.py directly), but it is supported and we try not to break it
./configure make && sudo make install
configure generates a
config.toml which can also be used with normal
Building on Windows
On Windows, we suggest using winget to install dependencies by running the following in a terminal:
winget install -e Python.Python.3 winget install -e Kitware.CMake winget install -e Git.Git
Then edit your system's
PATH variable and add:
this guide on editing the system
from the Java documentation.
There are two prominent ABIs in use on Windows: the native (MSVC) ABI used by Visual Studio and the GNU ABI used by the GCC toolchain. Which version of Rust you need depends largely on what C/C++ libraries you want to interoperate with. Use the MSVC build of Rust to interop with software produced by Visual Studio and the GNU build to interop with GNU software built using the MinGW/MSYS2 toolchain.
MSYS2 can be used to easily build Rust on Windows:
Download the latest MSYS2 installer and go through the installer.
mingw64_shell.batfrom the MSYS2 installation directory (e.g.
C:\msys64), depending on whether you want 32-bit or 64-bit Rust. (As of the latest version of MSYS2 you have to run
msys2_shell.cmd -mingw64from the command line instead.)
From this terminal, install the required tools:
# Update package mirrors (may be needed if you have a fresh install of MSYS2) pacman -Sy pacman-mirrors # Install build tools needed for Rust. If you're building a 32-bit compiler, # then replace "x86_64" below with "i686". If you've already got Git, Python, # or CMake installed and in PATH you can remove them from this list. # Note that it is important that you do **not** use the 'python2', 'cmake', # and 'ninja' packages from the 'msys2' subsystem. # The build has historically been known to fail with these packages. pacman -S git \ make \ diffutils \ tar \ mingw-w64-x86_64-python \ mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake \ mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc \ mingw-w64-x86_64-ninja
Navigate to Rust's source code (or clone it), then build it:
python x.py setup user && python x.py build && python x.py install
MSVC builds of Rust additionally require an installation of Visual Studio 2017
(or later) so
rustc can use its linker. The simplest way is to get
Visual Studio, check the "C++ build tools" and "Windows 10 SDK" workload.
(If you're installing CMake yourself, be careful that "C++ CMake tools for Windows" doesn't get included under "Individual components".)
With these dependencies installed, you can build the compiler in a
python x.py setup user python x.py build
Right now, building Rust only works with some known versions of Visual Studio. If you have a more recent version installed and the build system doesn't understand, you may need to force rustbuild to use an older version. This can be done by manually calling the appropriate vcvars file before running the bootstrap.
CALL "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\VC\Auxiliary\Build\vcvars64.bat" python x.py build
Specifying an ABI
Each specific ABI can also be used from either environment (for example, using the GNU ABI in PowerShell) by using an explicit build triple. The available Windows build triples are:
- GNU ABI (using GCC)
- The MSVC ABI
The build triple can be specified by either specifying
x.py commands, or by creating a
config.toml file (as described in
Building on a Unix-like system), and passing
--set build.build=<triple> to
If you'd like to build the documentation, it's almost the same:
The generated documentation will appear under
doc in the
build directory for
the ABI used. That is, if the ABI was
x86_64-pc-windows-msvc, the directory
Since the Rust compiler is written in Rust, it must be built by a precompiled "snapshot" version of itself (made in an earlier stage of development). As such, source builds require an Internet connection to fetch snapshots, and an OS that can execute the available snapshot binaries.
See https://doc.rust-lang.org/nightly/rustc/platform-support.html for a list of supported platforms. Only "host tools" platforms have a pre-compiled snapshot binary available; to compile for a platform without host tools you must cross-compile.
You may find that other platforms work, but these are our officially supported build environments that are most likely to work.
See https://www.rust-lang.org/community for a list of chat platforms and forums.
Rust is primarily distributed under the terms of both the MIT license and the Apache License (Version 2.0), with portions covered by various BSD-like licenses.
See LICENSE-APACHE, LICENSE-MIT, and COPYRIGHT for details.
The Rust Foundation owns and protects the Rust and Cargo trademarks and logos (the "Rust Trademarks").
If you want to use these names or brands, please read the media guide.
Third-party logos may be subject to third-party copyrights and trademarks. See Licenses for details.
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